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Table of Contents to the
UN Law of the Sea Convention

This is the table of contents to other hypertext documents containing the full text of the Law of the Sea Convention 1982 and Annexes in hypertext format. The Convention has been divided into five HTML pages for easy loading.

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Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 (28 Jul 1994):A/RES/48/263 (33 ILM 1309)
UN Law of Sea List of Ratifications, post 1996 accessions, successions etc  web page updated frequently (nb: link changed recently)

UN Law of the Sea Press Releases

Part I INTRODUCTION

Article 1 Use of terms and scope

Part II TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 2 Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil

Section 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Article 3 Breadth of the territorial sea

Article 4 Outer limit of the territorial sea

Article 5 Normal baseline

Article 6 Reefs

Article 7 Straight baselines

Article 8 Internal waters

Article 9 Mouths of rivers

Article 10 Bays

Article 11 Ports

Article 12 Roadsteads

Article 13 Low-tide elevations

Article 14 Combination of methods for determining baselines

Article 15 Delimitation of the territorial sea between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

Article 16 Charts and lists of geographical co- ordinates

Section 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA

SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

Article 17 Right of innocent passage

Article 18 Meaning of passage

Article 19 Meaning of innocent passage

Article 20 Submarines and other underwater vehicles

Article 21 Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage

Article 22 Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in the territorial sea

Article 23 Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances

Article 24 Duties of the coastal State

Article 25 Rights of protection of the coastal State

Article 26 Charges which may be levied upon foreign ships

Article 27 Criminal jurisdiction on board a foreign ship

Article 28 Civil jurisdiction in relation to foreign ships

SUBSECTION C. RULES APPLICABLE TO WARSHIPS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article 29 Definition of warships

Article 30 Non-compliance by warships with the laws and regulations of the coastal State

Article 31 Responsibility of the flag State for damage caused by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes

Article 32 Immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes

Section 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Part III STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 34 Legal status of waters forming straits used for international navigation

Article 35 Scope of this Part

Article 36 High seas routes or routes through exclusive economic zones through straits used for international navigation

Section 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE

Article 37 Scope of this section

Article 38 Right of transit passage

Article 39 Duties of ships and aircraft during transit passage

Article 40 Research and survey activities

Article 41 Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in straits used for international navigation

Article 42 Laws and regulations of States bordering straits relating to transit passage

Article 43 Navigational and safety aids and other improvements and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution

Article 44 Duties of States bordering straits

Section 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE

Article 45 Innocent passage

Part IV
ARCHIPELAGIC STATES

Article 46 Use of terms

Article 47 Archipelagic baselines

Article 48 Measurement of the breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

Article 49 Legal status of archipelagic waters, of the air space over archipelagic waters and of their bed and subsoil

Article 50 Delimitation of internal waters

Article 51 Existing agreements, traditional fishing rights and existing submarine cables

Article 52 Right of innocent passage

Article 53 Right of archipelagic sea lanes passage

Article 54 Duties of ships and aircraft during their passage, research and survey activities, duties of the archipelagic State and laws and regulations of the archipelagic State relating to archipelagic sea lanes passage

Part V
EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

Article 55 Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone

Article 56 Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the exclusive economic zone

Article 57 Breadth of the exclusive economic zone

Article 58 Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive economic zone

Article 59 Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone

Article 60 Artificial islands, installations and structures in the exclusive economic zone

Article 61 Conservation of the living resources

Article 62 Utilization of the living resources

Article 63 Stocks occurring within the exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States or both within the exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to it

Article 64 Highly migratory species

Article 65 Marine mammals

Article 66 Anadromous stocks

Article 67 Catadromous species

Article 68 Sedentary species

Article 69 Right of land-locked States

Article 70 Right of geographically disadvantaged States

Article 71 Non-applicability of articles 69 and 70

Article 72 Restrictions on transfer of rights

Article 73 Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State

Article 74 Delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

Article 75 Charts and lists of geographical co- ordinates

Part VI CONTINENTAL SHELF

Article 76 Definition of the continental shelf

Article 77 Rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf

Article 78 Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space and the rights and freedoms of other States

Article 79 Submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf

Article 80 Artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf

Article 81 Drilling on the continental shelf

Article 82 Payments and contributions with respect to the exploitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles

Article 83 Delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

Article 84 Charts and lists of geographical co- ordinates

Article 85 Tunnelling

Part VII HIGH SEAS

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 86 Application of the provisions of this Part

Article 87 Freedom of the high seas

Article 88 Reservation of the high seas for peaceful purposes

Article 89 Invalidity of claims of sovereignty over the high seas

Article 90 Right of navigation

Article 91 Nationality of ships

Article 92 Status of ships

Article 93 Ships flying the flag of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency

Article 94 Duties of the flag State

Article 95 Immunity of warships on the high seas

Article 96 Immunity of ships used only on government non-commercial service

Article 97 Penal jurisdiction in matters of collision or any other incident of navigation

Article 98 Duty to render assistance

Article 99 Prohibition of the transport of slaves

Article 100 Duty to co-operate in the repression of piracy

Article 101 Definition of piracy

Article 102 Piracy by a warship, government ship or government aircraft whose crew has mutinied

Article 103 Definition of a pirate ship or aircraft

Article 104 Retention or loss of the nationality of a pirate ship or aircraft

Article 105 Seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft

Article 106 Liability for seizure without adequate grounds

Article 107 Ships and aircraft which are entitled to seize on account of piracy

Article 108 Illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances

Article 109 Unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas

Article 110 Right of visit

Article 111 Right of hot pursuit

Article 112 Right to lay submarine cables and pipelines

Article 113 Breaking or injury of a submarine cable or pipeline

Article 114 Breaking or injury by owners of a submarine cable or pipeline of another submarine cable or pipeline

Article 115 Indemnity for loss incurred in avoiding injury to a submarine cable or pipeline

Section 2. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES OF THE HIGH SEAS

Article 116 Right to fish on the high seas

Article 117 Duty of States to adopt with respect to their nationals measures for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas

Article 118 Co-operation of States in the conservation and management of living resources

Article 119 Conservation of the living resources of the high seas

Article 120 Marine mammals

Part VIII REGIME OF ISLANDS

Article 121 Regime of islands

Part IX ENCLOSED OR SEMI-ENCLOSED

SEAS

Article 122 Definition

Article 123 Co-operation of States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas

Article 124 Use of terms

Article 125 Right of access to and from the sea and freedom of transit

Article 126 Exclusion of application of the most- favoured-nation clause

Article 127 Customs duties, taxes and other charges

Article 128 Free zones and other customs facilities

Article 129 Co-operation in the construction and improvement of means of transport

Article 130 Measures to avoid or eliminate delays or other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit

Article 131 Equal treatment in maritime ports

Article 132 Grant of greater transit facilities

Part XI THE AREA

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 133 Use of terms

Article 134 Scope of this Part

Article 135 Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space

Section 2. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE AREA

Article 136 Common heritage of mankind

Article 137 Legal status of the Area and its resources

Article 138 General conduct of States in relation to the Area

Article 139 Responsibility to ensure compliance and liability for damage

Article 140 Benefit of mankind

Article 141 Use of the Area exclusively for peaceful purposes

Article 142 Rights and legitimate interests of coastal States

Article 143 Marine scientific research

Article 144 Transfer of technology

Article 145 Protection of the marine environment

Article 146 Protection of human life

Article 147 Accommodation of activities in the Area and in the marine environment

Article 148 Participation of developing States in activities in the Area

Article 149 Archaeological and historical objects

Section 3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE AREA

Article 150 Policies relating to activities in the Area

Article 151 Production policies

Article 152 Exercise of powers and functions by the Authority

Article 153 System of exploration and exploitation

Article 154 Periodic review

Article 155 The Review Conference

Section 4. THE AUTHORITY

SUBSECTION A. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 156 Establishment of the Authority

Article 157 Nature and fundamental principles of the Authority

Article 158 Organs of the Authority

SUBSECTION B. THE ASSEMBLY

Article 159 Composition, procedure and voting

Article 160 Powers and functions

SUBSECTION C. THE COUNCIL

Article 161 Composition, procedure and voting

Article 162 Powers and functions

Article 163 Organs of the Council

Article 164 The Economic Planning Commission

Article 165 The Legal and Technical Commission

SUBSECTION D. THE SECRETARIAT

Article 166 The Secretariat

Article 167 The staff of the Authority

Article 168 International character of the Secretariat

Article 169 Consultation and co-operation with international and non-governmental organizations

SUBSECTION E. THE ENTERPRISE

Article 170 The Enterprise

SUBSECTION F. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY

Article 171 Funds of the Authority

Article 172 Annual budget of the Authority

Article 173 Expenses of the Authority

Article 174 Borrowing power of the Authority

Article 175 Annual audit

SUBSECTION G. LEGAL STATUS, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

Article 176 Legal status

Article 177 Privileges and immunities

Article 178 Immunity from legal process

Article 179 Immunity from search and any form of seizure

Article 180 Exemption from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria

Article 181 Archives and official communications of the Authority

Article 182 Privileges and immunities of certain persons connected with the Authority

Article 183 Exemption from taxes and customs duties

Article 184 Suspension of the exercise of voting rights

Article 185 Suspension of exercise of rights and privileges of membership

Section 5. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND ADVISORY OPINIONS

Article 186 Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

Article 187 Jurisdiction of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber

Article 188 Submission of disputes to a special chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea or an ad hoc chamber of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber or to binding commercial arbitration

Article 189 Limitation on jurisdiction with regard to decisions of the Authority

Article 190 Participation and appearance of sponsoring States Parties in proceedings

Article 191 Advisory opinions

PART XII PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 192 General obligation

Article 193 Sovereign right of States to exploit their natural resources

Article 194 Measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment

Article 195 Duty not to transfer damage or hazards or transform one type of pollution into another

Article 196 Use of technologies or introduction of alien or new species

Section 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL CO-OPERATION

Article 197 Co-operation on a global or regional basis

Article 198 Notification of imminent or actual damage

Article 199 Contingency plans against pollution

Article 200 Studies, research programmes and exchange of information and data

Article 201 Scientific criteria for regulations

Section 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Article 202 Scientific and technical assistance to developing States

Article 203 Preferential treatment for developing States

Section 4. MONITORING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Article 204 Monitoring of the risks or effects of pollution

Article 205 Publication of reports

Article 206 Assessment of potential effects of activities

Section 5. INTERNATIONAL RULES AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION TO PREVENT, REDUCE AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Article 207 Pollution from land-based sources

Article 208 Pollution from sea-bed activities subject to national jurisdiction

Article 209 Pollution from activities in the Area

Article 210 Pollution by dumping

Article 211 Pollution from vessels

Article 212 Pollution from or through the atmosphere

Section 6. ENFORCEMENT

Article 213 Enforcement with respect to pollution from land-based sources

Article 214 Enforcement with respect to pollution from sea-bed activities

Article 215 Enforcement with respect to pollution from activities in the Area

Article 216 Enforcement with respect to pollution by dumping

Article 217 Enforcement by flag States

Article 218 Enforcement by port States

Article 219 Measures relating to seaworthiness of vessels to avoid pollution

Article 220 Enforcement by coastal States

Article 221 Measures to avoid pollution arising from maritime casualties

Article 222 Enforcement with respect to pollution from or through the atmosphere

Section 7. SAFEGUARDS

Article 223 Measures to facilitate proceedings

Article 224 Exercise of powers of enforcement

Article 225 Duty to avoid adverse consequences in the exercise of the powers of enforcement

Article 226 Investigation of foreign vessels

Article 227 Non-discrimination with respect to foreign vessels

Article 228 Suspension and restrictions on institution of proceedings

Article 229 Institution of civil proceedings

Article 230 Monetary penalties and the observance of recognized rights of the accused

Article 231 Notification to the flag State and other States concerned

Article 232 Liability of States arising from enforcement measures

Article 233 Safeguards with respect to straits used for international navigation

Section 8. ICE-COVERED AREAS

Article 234 Ice-covered areas

Section 9. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

Article 235 Responsibility and liability

Section 10. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY

Article 236 Sovereign immunity

Section 11. OBLIGATIONS UNDER OTHER CONVENTIONS ON THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Article 237 Obligations under other conventions on the protection and preservation of the marine environment

PART XIII MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 238 Right to conduct marine scientific research

Article 239 Promotion of marine scientific research

Article 240 General principles for the conduct of marine scientific research

Article 241 Non-recognition of marine scientific research activities as the legal basis for claims

Section 2. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION

Article 242 Promotion of international co-operation

Article 243 Creation of favourable conditions

Article 244 Publication and dissemination of information and knowledge

Section 3. CONDUCT AND PROMOTION OF MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Article 245 Marine scientific research in the territorial sea

Article 246 Marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf

Article 247 Marine scientific research projects undertaken by or under the auspices of international organizations

Article 248 Duty to provide information to the coastal State

Article 249 Duty to comply with certain conditions

Article 250 Communications concerning marine scientific research projects

Article 251 General criteria and guidelines

Article 252 Implied consent

Article 253 Suspension or cessation of marine scientific research activities

Article 254 Rights of neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States

Article 255 Measures to facilitate marine scientific research and assist research vessels

Article 256 Marine scientific research in the Area

Article 257 Marine scientific research in the water column beyond the exclusive economic zone

Section 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Article 258 Deployment and use

Article 259 Legal status

Article 260 Safety zones

Article 261 Non-interference with shipping routes

Article 262 Identification markings and warning signals

Section 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

Article 263 Responsibility and liability

Section 6. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND INTERIM MEASURES

Article 264 Settlement of disputes

Part XIV DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 266 Promotion of the development and transfer of marine technology

Article 267 Protection of legitimate interests

Article 268 Basic objectives

Article 269 Measures to achieve the basic objectives

Section 2. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION

Article 270 Ways and means of international co- operation

Article 271 Guidelines, criteria and standards

Article 272 Co-ordination of international programmes

Article 273 Co-operation with international organizations and the Authority

Article 274 Objectives of the Authority

Section 3. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL MARINE

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CENTRES

Article 275 Establishment of national centres

Article 276 Establishment of regional centres

Article 277 Functions of regional centres

Section 4. CO-OPERATION AMONG INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Article 278 Co-operation among international organizations

PART XV SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 279 Obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means

Article 280 Settlement of disputes by any peaceful means chosen by the parties

Article 281 Procedure where no settlement has been reached by the parties

Article 282 Obligations under general, regional or bilateral agreements

Article 283 Obligation to exchange views

Article 284 Conciliation

Article 285 Application of this section to disputes submitted pursuant to Part XI

Section 2. COMPULSORY PROCEDURES

ENTAILING BINDING DECISIONS

Article 286 Application of procedures under this section

Article 287 Choice of procedure

Article 288 Jurisdiction

Article 289 Experts

Article 290 Provisional measures

Article 291 Access

Article 292 Prompt release of vessels and crews

Article 293 Applicable law

Article 294 Preliminary proceedings

Article 295 Exhaustion of local remedies

Article 296 Finality and binding force of decisions

Section 3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2

Article 297 Limitations on applicability of section 2

Article 298 Optional exceptions to applicability of section 2

Article 299 Right of the parties to agree upon a procedure

Part XVI GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 300 Good faith and abuse of rights

Article 301 Peaceful uses of the seas

Article 302 Disclosure of information

Article 303 Archaeological and historical objects found at sea

Article 304 Responsibility and liability for damage

Article 305 Signature

Article 306 Ratification and formal confirmation

Article 307 Accession

Article 308 Entry into force

Article 309 Reservations and exceptions

Article 310 Declarations and statements

Article 311 Relation to other conventions and international agreements

Article 312 Amendment

Article 313 Amendment by simplified procedure

Article 314 Amendments to the provisions of this Convention relating exclusively to activities in the Area

Article 315 Signature, ratification oft accession to and authentic texts of amendments

Article 316 Entry into force of amendments

Article 317 Denunciation

Article 318 Status of Annexes

Article 319 Depositary

Article 320 Authentic texts

Annexes to the Law of the Sea Convention 1982- Part 1

Annexes to the Law of the Sea Convention 1982- Part 2

     
 
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